In recent years, our information technology level continuously improves, has obtained an all-round development, prompting all walks of life to further develop, especially the electromechanical numerical control technology and equipment. CNC machinery automation effectively promotes the production capacity of enterprises, while ensuring the safety and quality of production. However, at present, NC machine tools are prone to electrical faults during operation, which will affect the operation efficiency of the whole equipment. Based on this, the analysis of NC machine tool equipment electrical fault, strengthen the study of electrical fault emergency treatment, can effectively ensure the operation efficiency and service life of NC machine tool equipment.
Compared with other types of equipment, CNC machine tool equipment is different in that its operating efficiency is not determined by its own performance, but by the repair and maintenance of CNC machine tool equipment. It can be seen that it is very important to repair and maintain CNC machine tool equipment, which can effectively reduce the incidence of electrical failure of CNC machine tool equipment and ensure the operation efficiency and stability of machine tool equipment. Therefore, the relevant staff need to pay attention to the emergency treatment of CNC machine tool equipment, electrical failure, take the corresponding emergency treatment measures and maintenance measures, so as to effectively improve the production efficiency of equipment.
1. Common electrical faults of CNC machine tools
1.1 Hardware and software failures of CNC machine tools
Specifically, CNC machine tools in the process of operation, software and hardware failure is more common. If the hardware of the CNC machine tool fails or is damaged, the relevant personnel need to repair the whole CNC machine tool equipment. When it is difficult to repair, new equipment needs to be replaced to ensure the normal and stable operation of CNC machine tools. The hardware and software of CNC machine tools fail mainly because of programming errors or parameter setting errors. Therefore, in the process of detecting the hardware and software failures of CNC machine tools, relevant technicians need to change the content of specific procedures and adjust parameters to ensure scientific operation, so as to effectively avoid the hardware and software failures of CNC machine tools .
1.2 System failure and random failure of CNC machine tool equipment
Once the application time of NC machine tool equipment increases during operation, it is easy to have system failure and random failure. The so-called system failure is the aging of the equipment system of the exponential control machine tool equipment, and the system failure occurs after its operation for a period of time. Random fault refers to the accidental failure of exponential control machine tool equipment during operation . System fault and random fault are complicated, so it is difficult to detect and maintain them. In order to ensure the maintenance work is scientific, and to effectively avoid system fault problems and random fault problems, the relevant personnel need to strengthen the random fault troubleshooting work, increase the number of troubleshooting, and need to debug the system structure repeatedly, so as to effectively ensure the fault detection, give full play to the effectiveness of maintenance measures.
1.3 General and sudden failures of CNC machine tools
According to the probability of fault occurrence of NC machine tool equipment in the process of operation, the common faults are divided into general faults and sudden faults. The so-called general fault is that the operation time of the exponential control machine tool equipment is long, and the inevitable fault such as exceeding the load operation and production is easy to occur during a long cycle. The detection and maintenance of common faults can be observed, controlled and prevented by human multi-sensory system. Sudden failure refers to the failure that is difficult to predict accurately, usually due to poor electrical contact, component loss, etc.
2, CNC machine tool equipment electrical fault diagnosis and processing
2.1 Diagnostic Procedure
CNC machine tools are prone to electrical failures, mainly because there are many pollutants in the air of the machining workshop, such as dust, metal powder and so on. These pollutants fall into the numerical control system of CNC machine tool equipment, especially the printed circuit board, electronic devices, easy to lead to the insulation resistance of components, components and printed circuit board damage, resulting in electrical failures. The following diagnostic steps can be used to diagnose the electrical faults of NC machine tools. Before the occurrence of electrical fault diagnosis, the relevant maintenance personnel need to ask the relevant personnel about the specific situation, including the occurrence and performance of the fault and the cause of the fault, so as to facilitate the judgment of the location and cause of the fault. Check and analyze the fault, and carefully observe the working register and buffer register, understand the NC machine tool equipment has been executed before the fault. In addition, need to check the printed circuit board alarm red light. If the red alarm light disappears, it means that the software is faulty; If the red light does not disappear, it is a hardware failure. There are many reasons for electrical faults of CNC machine tools. When diagnosing electrical faults, the relevant maintenance personnel need to list and analyze the causes of electrical faults by combining the supporting CNC system diagnosis manual and manual. For example, CKA6150 CNC machine tool equipment in the process of running suddenly spindle emergency stop fault and alarm information, the main reason is the winding winding of the spindle motor short circuit, circuit board failure and transistor module damage. CNC machine tool equipment electrical fault diagnosis and maintenance, can list the causes of electrical fault, and one by one to eliminate, in order to find the real reason. Maintenance personnel need to make preparations, such as purchasing parts, preparing tools and meters, and then locate the possible causes one by one to accurately find the specific causes of electrical faults.
2.2 Treatment Method
2.2.1 Direct observation method is the most commonly used method for emergency treatment of electrical faults of CNC machine tools. The so-called direct observation method means that the relevant personnel rely on the naked eye sense, combined with the existing experience, to find the cause of electrical failure and take the corresponding treatment method. Direct observation method is relatively simple to operate, coupled with little reliance on tools, so it is widely used, becoming the current CNC machine tool equipment electrical fault emergency treatment method. In the process of using direct observation method to deal with electrical faults of equipment, relevant technical personnel need to ask other operators about the occurrence of electrical faults, especially to understand the use of CNC machine tool equipment when electrical faults occur, and then observe the appearance of CNC machine tool equipment with naked eyes to determine whether there are cracks or damage. It can also smell the odor of the equipment through the nose, so as to determine the location and cause of the electrical fault of the CNC machine tool equipment scientifically and reasonably combined with the existing experience. 2.2.2 Self-diagnosis function At present, the majority of CNC machine tool equipment numerical control system has the function of self-diagnosis, which can bring convenience to the maintenance work of relevant maintenance personnel, provide the corresponding diagnostic information, and effectively monitor the operation of the CNC system software throughout the whole process, so as to provide convenience for the maintenance personnel to diagnose the electrical fault of the equipment. The use of self-diagnosis function method for detection, if there is an abnormal situation, CNC machine tool equipment will appear alarm information or diode indicating fault information, need to immediately cut off the power, to ensure that the CNC machine tool equipment can run stably. The scientific and reasonable application of the self-diagnosis function method can present the NC system components of the system and the main engine, and promote the relevant maintenance personnel to find the fault location, that is, whether it occurs in the NC system part or the mechanical part. CNC machine tool equipment shutdown failure, usually because of software failure or improper operation. Therefore, it is necessary to check the software after system failure, so as to effectively ensure the workload of maintenance. In addition, CNC machine tools will produce alarm information after the failure of the equipment, maintenance personnel need to be combined with the alarm signal scientific and reasonable processing. 2.2.3 Parameter inspection method The parameter inspection method can also be used in the diagnosis and treatment of electrical faults of CNC machine tools. Part of the reason for electrical failure is the problem of equipment parameters, so when the numerical control system of CNC machine tool equipment fails or the alarm signal disappears, the parameter inspection method should be used to check and check the corresponding system parameters. In general, the basic system parameters do not need to be modified, and the whole parameter needs to be stored in the bubble memory. If affected by external factors and interference or equipment power shortage, some parameters will be confused or lost, thus affecting the stability of CNC machine tool equipment, normal operation. The electrical fault of NC machine tool equipment can be dealt with by repairing parameters. The long-term operation of NC machine tools is easy to cause the change of performance parameters, so it is necessary to adjust the parameters and study them. Usually, the electrical fault of some CNC machine tools is mainly due to the fact that the relevant operators do not adjust and correct the performance parameters of the electrical element in time, which can be called soft fault. Therefore, this puts forward higher requirements for the relevant maintenance personnel, who need to have rich experience in electrical debugging, so as to effectively deal with the fault of CNC machine tool equipment.
To sum up, there are some common electrical faults in CNC machine tools. Relevant technicians need to master the emergency treatment measures of electrical faults and the relevant steps of electrical fault diagnosis. Direct observation method, self-diagnosis function method and parameter inspection method can be used to operate, so as to deal with the fault as soon as possible.